Comprehensive data on the distribution of bacteria causing clinical bovine mastitis are not available for any country. According to the results from individual studies, the bacterial etiology of clinical mastitis changes over time and there are clear differences between countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial etiology of clinical mastitis in 2002–2003 in the practice area of Saari Ambulatory Clinic.
The material comprised 1017 cases of clinical mastitis (code 301 in the diagnosis list of the Finnish health recording system), from which aseptic milk samples were collected. The distribution of bacteria isolated from the samples was as follows: Staphylococcus aureus 10.7 %, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) 15.6 %, Streptococcus uberis 13.7 %, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 9.5 %, coliforms 11.6 %, Arcanobacterium pyogenes 3.8 %, and other bacteria or mixed growth 7.9 %. No bacterial growth was recorded for 27.1 % of the samples. Susceptibility of staphylococci to penicillin G in vitro was tested using a beta-lactamase test: 22.9 % of S. aureus and 13.2 % of CNS were resistant to penicillin. Compared with the situation in the 1980's, the proportion of S. aureus as a clinical mastitis causing agent is lower and CNS have become more common. Samples with no bacterial growth were found more frequently than before. Penicillin-resistance of staphylococci was clearly lower than reported in the nationwide survey.
The results are compared with those from earlier studies carried out during the 1980's and 1990's in the same area. Literature on the bacterial etiology of clinical mastitis is reviewed and the present results are compared with those from other countries as well as with the results from the Finnish mastitis survey on subclinical mastitis from 2001.
The use of fresh produce all year round has increased enourmously. Availability problems due to seasonal change because of Finland’s geo-graphical position, have been solved by the increasing import from dis-tant countries. For example, new methods, which enable an effective reduction of the growth of spoilage microbes, have made it possible to import fresh produce from all over the world. This literature review treats normal microbial flora in fresh produce and factors that affect spoilage of fresh produce.