Bovine spastic paresis – neurectomy in the barn

Jouko Jakala


Bovine spastic paresis is a progressive neuromuscular disease in the hindlimb, where the hock is hyperextended. Signs of spastic paresis usually appear in the calf during the fi rst months of age, seldom later. Hyperextension of the hock is due to the spastic contraction of M.gastrocnemius. Etiology of the disturbance is unknown. When the disease progresses, the calf cannot use the limb at all. Spastic paresis has not been reported in Finland before, and the calf described in this case report derives from Canada. An affected calf  can be salvaged to slaughter by tenectomy or neurectomy. In the case described here, the calf recovered well by partial tibial neurectomy. Spastic paresis is inherited to some degree, and  affected calves should not be used as breeding animals.

Hospital acquired salmonella infections in horses – a review

Virve Kallio, Olli Mäkelä and Merja Rantala


Outbreaks of equine salmonellosis in veterinary hospitals have been frequently reported. In veterinary hospitals, horses are susceptible to outbreaks caused by salmonella due to numerous risk factors, and defi ciencies in patients’ immune system. Salmonella infections can cause extensive outbreaks in veterinary hospitals. Pathogens spread easily, for instance, via personnel’s hands and hospital equipment. Salmonellosis is characterized by diarrhoea or consistency changes in faeces, fever, depression, anorexia and dehydration. Hematological abnormalities include leucopenia and elevation in plasma fi brinogen. High prevalence of salmonellosis has been reported particularly in horses with colic. The diagnosis of salmonella is based on clinical signs and isolation of the organism from faeces. The most important treatment includes good nursing care and adequate fl uid therapy. Administration of antibiotics is recommended only in serious systemic infections, and antimicrobial treatment should be based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Outbreaks of salmonellosis can be controlled by detecting high-risk or carrier patients, aseptic working methods, good hand hygiene practice and, if necessary, cohorting or isolating patients. These measures and proper mechanical cleaning of the environment seems to be more important in eradication of salmonella outbreaks than the extensive use of disinfectants. Eradication and prevention measures have been successful if new salmonella cases are not detected.